For example, consider dependence of index K1, the ability to prevent war, on security and tolerance.
K1, definitely the most important of the essential indices listed above – the ability to prevent war (threat of war) is a key element of national and international security. It presumes sufficient military capacity, the ability to prevent international and cross-border conflicts and settle them diplomatically, the ability to maintain arms control agreements and many other factors.
To a large degree, national security is a function of nation’s military capacity. However, this relationship is not linear. National security may weaken and fall below critical point if military capacity is either above or below a certain threshold. Excessive military capacity may threaten other nations, provoking them to build up their own military capabilities and form close alliances against a common enemy. During a crisis, fear may lead to pre-emptive strikes (as happened with Israel’s strike during the Six-Day War in 1967). In addition, building up excessive military capacity may undermine nation’s finances, which may negatively affect other of socio-economic indices and lead to social unrest.
On the other hand, when military capacity declines below a certain threshold, other countries might be tempted to apply political pressure, and, in extreme cases, even military force. If this happens, the nation finds itself vulnerable and defenceless.
At both ends of the spectrum, overall international security can be negatively affected by excessive or insufficient military capacity.
The same logic applies to tolerance. On the one hand, an extreme decline in tolerance, e.g., refusal to consider other countries’ interests and withdrawal from negotiations and agreements on disputed issues, all start to undermine the security of a country pursuing such policies because other nations may react by adopting tougher policies, including more radical and militaristic positions, leading to international confrontation, conflicts and wars.
On the other hand, excessive tolerance in foreign policy may empower other nations and non-state actors to act against the wellbeing of a tolerant nation (via, political and military pressure, proliferation of nuclear arms and carriers, escalation of international terrorism and other dangerous acts). This would produce conflicts and chaos, which may be fatal for national and international security.
The above example (using K1 index) demonstrates paradoxes inherent in both security and tolerance.
The author (being no mountaineer at all) finds his personal 12-year “ascent” of the “ridge” depicted in green on Figure 4 helpful for understanding the dynamics of wellbeing, security, and tolerance, and has named part of this ridge after himself – the Kantor Ridge, or, more briefly, Kanridge. We can also see in Figure 4 that the pink area defined by balanced values for S and T is the field of Secure Tolerance. Consequently, for each of the Ki indices, only appropriate part of the ridge where Ti and Si values provide sufficiently high level of Ki indices, may be called Kanridge. Figure 4 also displays univariate dependencies K(S, 0) and K(0, T) introduced earlier (under Observation 1) – these two dependencies are shown as two separate dotted lines. As evident from Fig. 4, the maximum values of univariate Kanridges K(S, 0) and K(0, T) are (usually) smaller than the maximum of bivariate Kanridge K(S, T). This observation suggests that an optimal region in ST-field, where Kanridge is large, depends on a pair of (S, T) values, rather than on optimally chosen single value.
Secure Tolerance (ST) is a region in two-dimensional space, which is affected by any public policy action. For example, consider the effect of US withdrawal from the INF Treaty on K1. This change in public policy will immediately trigger three (dynamic) processes: